Tuesday, September 1, 2020

Ciguatera fish poisoning

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It is characterized by gastrointestinal, neurologic, and cardiac symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months.

Ciguatera fish poisoning is not due to the mishandling of fish and is not prevented by any particular storage, preparation, or cooking methods. Humans acquire this illness by eating reef fish containing the naturally occurring toxins, ciguatoxins. The ciguatoxins are tasteless, colorless, odorless, heat and acid stable, and stable for at least six months at commercial freezing temperatures.

A variety of compounds, including ciguatoxin, maitotoxin, scaritoxin, palytoxin, and possibly okadaic acid, are thought to be involved. These toxins are passed up the food chain from small plant-eating fish to large predatory fish, with increasing concentrations at each succession. Toxins are found in virtually every part of the fish, but appear to be more concentrated in the head, organs, and roe.

Ciguatoxin or CTX and their precursors are produced by microscopic algae known as dinoflagellates, in the genus, Gambierdiscus. These dinoflagellates are bottom-dwelling and are typically found attached to seaweeds, living and dead corals, and other substrates (i.e., surfaces) in shallow tropical and subtropical waters.

CTX is one of the most potent natural substances known. One of the ciguatoxins (P-CTX-1, found in the Pacific Ocean) poses a health risk at concentrations as low as 0.08 to 0.1 μg/kg, although CTX rarely accumulates in fish at levels that are lethal to humans. CTX activates the voltage-gated sodium channels in cell membranes, which increases sodium ion permeability and depolarizes. the nerve cells.
Ciguatera fish poisoning
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